Getting Essentially the most From your Egyptian Vacation
The Mummification Museum, Luxor, Egypt opened in 1997 and provides right now’s visitor an in depth idea concerning the mummification process, the Historical Egyptian concept of judgement & the afterlife and exhibits us some objects related to mummification. The phrase mummification is derived from the Persian phrase mummiya, which implies bitumen in Arabic and offers us the word mummification. A go to to the museum begins with scenes copied from authentic papyruses like Ani and Honfr, that are at the British Museum.
The Historical Egyptian believed that they will go into the judgment hall immediately after the death and mummification. On arrival there can be a balance or scale where the heart of the deceased was weighed towards a feather, which was image of reality. The Ibis headed god, Thoth holds a reed pen and scribes palette to put in writing down the end result. If the guts was heavier than the feather then the deceased was guilty. If the guts was equal with the feather he will go in security to paradise ruled by Osiris.
So an important scene from the papyrus is the judgment corridor. We see the weighing of the guts on the scales. On one facet of the balance we see his heart in a pot and on the opposite aspect we see the feather of Maat, symbol of the truth; if they balanced it meant he was not responsible. The deceased then handed safely to paradise. There he appears dressed in white linen, on a white sand island. He then goes to great lake which is in the midst of the fields of the peace; there the Gods sit and provides him bread and meals of life to eat. We then see Ani making choices to the Gods, paddling a ship, handling oxen which tread the corn and an adoring benu chook (Ani 1250 B.C.).
If the deceased was guilty he will be despatched to the lake of the fire which had four jets to absorb the blood of the criminals.
Then we see the burial scenes together with the funeral procession. The males are carrying the funerary furnishings, including all the tools of the deceased, into the tomb. This scene is copied from the tomb of Ramose on the West Financial institution of Luxor.The sarcophagus is on a sledge; ladies with unfastened hair are placing dust on their head. The funerary boat will carry the mummy to the west financial institution to be buried.
There are two goddesses with the mummy. Isis the mother of Horus and wife of Osiris who collected his body after Seth had killed him and scattered his body all through the land of Egypt. Nephytys is the mother of Anubis, wife of Seth, sister of Isis. These two ladies had been thought of essential protecting Goddess with nice magical skills.
An important funerary ceremony was the Opening the Mouth which was carried out by the high priest with a setp instrument. When the priest or family members communicate his name, the Ba returns to his body and may benefit from the choices. The Ancient Egyptian believed that the “Ba” spirit comes holding the shen, image of eternity. Anubis protects the entrance of the burial chamber. Anubis mummified the body of Osiris with the help of four sons of Hours. For this reason Egyptian religion gives Anubis many titles e.g. the God of Mummification who Protects the Deceased. Osiris was father of Horus, brother of Isis, Nephytys and Seth, and son of Geb and Nut. He is the first body who was mummified by Anubis, the first who was raised to the second life, he became lord of the judgment hall and god of dying, at the moment he was the most famous God of Egypt.
Mummification occurred over 70 days and was presided over by the embalmers (High Priests) who have been responsible for the mummification operation.
Firstly they transported the body of the deceased to the Mummification Home (pr nfr).
During the first 15 days the body washed and had its organs removed. Inside any predominant temple e.g. Karnak, there was sacred lake which was used for the cult purposes and the day by day use of the priests. It was also used to scrub the physique of the deceased which was then dried using natron salt. Then they positioned the physique on the operating table to extract the brain and viscera. They broke the ethmoid bone at high of the nose with a chisel. This gave them entry into the skull cavity and so they lower the brain into small pieces using the spatula and picked it out with a spoon. They made an incision in the left hand side of the abdominal cavity, which was about 10 cm lengthy. By way of this they removed the viscera. Varied instruments have been used in this process, that are shown within the museum. Scissors had been used throughout the reducing of the viscera from abdomen. The cutter was used to extract the viscera.
The viscera have been mummified individually and put into 4 canopic jars, typically alabaster. They wrapped the viscera in a linen bandages.
The four sons of Horus, in the form of mummies, stand guard over the viscera:
Imsety has human face and protects the liver.
Duamutef has jackal’s head and protects stomach.
Hapy has baboon’s head and protects lungs.
Qebekh-sennuef has a falcon’s head and protects the intestines.
They put the non permanent stuffing within the abdominal cavity of the body (linen luggage, spices, myrrh, resin, sawdust, and cassia) and so they coated the physique with natron salt for 40 days to absorb the moisture. This was changed recurrently and it was in small bags to enable straightforward elimination.
In the last 15 days they eliminated the salt and altered the momentary stuffing with Stone Island Clothes recent stuffing. They coated all of the body with resin to guard it against micro organism and to maintain it in a superb state of preservation. They anointed it with cedar oil. The mouth and the nostril had been sealed with linen and molten resin, the body was wrapped with linen and bandages. They wrapped the body with 38m.of linen making 375 bandages. Between each layer they put an amulet. A scarab was put next to the center and the deceased asked his heart to not say something bad towards him in the course of the judgement. They drew on it Osiris god of the dead. They covered the top and shoulder of the mummy with a mask. After that they put the wrapped physique in a wooden coffin and then in a stone sarcophagus.
The last half was a ceremony conducted by the excessive priests referred to as the Opening of the Mouth. Using the setp software to touch the mouth of the deceased they gave him the present of eternal after-life and he is ready to obtain offerings.
The mummification process reached to the golden age during the twenty first dynasty. In that period they minimize an incision below the cheek and stuffed them with stuffing making them very life like.
The Ancient Egyptian believed that loss of life means separation of the spirit from the physique. The spirit then returns to the physique and provides the deceased life once more within the underworld. The name of the deceased was carved on the wall of the tomb so it would be stated perpetually by any visitors to the tomb.
These were the medical instruments used by the embalmers.
Scissors: used to chop the tip of the viscera from abdominal cavity, made from bronze seventeenth dynasty from Thebes.
Chisel: used to interrupt the ethmoid bone, made from bronze.
Spatula: to remove and minimize the mind, made from bronze.
Cutter: used to chop the viscera, made from bronze. The massive one is from Abydos and the small one from Saqqara 18th dynasty.
Tweezers: made from bronze from Talbasta. From the Roman interval and used to separate the viscera.
Puncher: from Qurna – used to make incision in the bone, made from bronze.
Needle: used for sewing the incision in the body, made from bronze from Talelgorab 19th dynasty.
Spoon: used to take away the brain.
Forceps: to separate the viscera.
Mummy of a fish.
The ancient Egyptian believed that the fish represented rebirth, its cult centre was Esna stone island model and it known as Lattee fish.
Mummy of baboon
Representing the god Thoth, God of data he was at all times present in the judgement hall standing by the balance holding the scribes palette and reed pen to file the results of weighing of the guts of the deceased.
Mummy of a cat
The animal of the goddess Bastet lady of Bubastis the place magnificent temple was built for her, she was a daughter of Atum, she provides the facility well being joy.
Mummy of ram
The animal of the god Khnum, his cult centre was at Elephantine.
Ushabti means “I answer” and these objects may be made from gold, wooden, faience or pottery. It is within the tomb to do the work for the deceased. Possibly in the afterlife the king requested him to fill the canal with the water, carry the sand from the west to the east. Then the figure has tools and replies “here I am ready”.
The Djed pillar amulet is a logo of stability and representing back bone of God Osiris. Legend has it’s the cedar tree which stored the guts of Osiris inside it. It additionally represented the columns which supported the heaven.
The head rest was used it to guard the neck and it carries the title of the deceased.
The coffin consists of three components. The decrease part comprises the mummy mendacity inside. The mummy lid takes the shape of the deceased. The coffin lid which confirmed the Gods of the Underworld, the ‘ba’, the Djed pillar, Nephytys with wings outstretched, Nephytys with sons of Hours and all are defending the deceased.
The attractive mummy cover of Padi Amun: the excessive priest of Amun has a beautiful wig. The goddess Nut with wings, representing the sky is proven receiving the deceased within the after world. There is also the gatekeeper representing the rebirth. The cover is stuffed with the shiny colours and the mummy has a handsome face with brilliant eyes.
The mummy board of Masaherti doesn’t have a face or palms as a result of the thieves that discovered it took the golden face and hands. Discovered 1871-1881 and it represent the deceased with the totally different gods e.g. Nut together with her wings at the tip of the cowl and the four sons of Horus. The identify and titles of the deceased seem on the cover.
The remains of mummification’s liquid: the Egyptian Expedition found the tomb of Amon-tef-nakt from twenty seventh dynasty He was a Basic in the Army against Persians when he died. The embalmers mummified him and left all materials of mummification in the sarcophagus, the liquid came from results of the interaction between the mummification supplies and the body.
The newest addition to the museum is the so known as ‘Embalming Mattress’ from the tomb of KV63 and two pillows. This bed was found disassembled in several storage jars and was reassembled and put on show in the most appropriate dwelling. Its open structure leads one to think that it was used for bandaging or another part of the mummification process. The little lion heads are significantly nice.