North Canal Historic District
The North Canal Historic District of Lawrence, Massachusetts, encompasses the historic industrial coronary heart of town. It is centered on the stone island zip up jumper North Canal and the good Stone Dam, which supplied the waterpower for its many mill complexes. The canal was listed on the National Register of Historic Locations in 1975, whereas the district was first listed in 1984, and then expanded slightly in 2009.
The city of Lawrence was based by industrialist Abbott Lawrence and the associates of the Essex Company as a model industrial metropolis. In 1845 they firm acquired land from then towns of Methuen and Andover and started development on the North Canal and the good Stone Dam. The work included dredging and building out of “new land”, and successfully created a small island between the Merrimack River and the canal, whose outlet is at the mouth of the Spicket River. Work on these two major options was completed in 1848, and growth of the town, which formally integrated in 1853, proceeded from Stone Island there. The historic district encompasses, along with the canal and the dam, the mill-associated buildings on the island and on the north facet of the canal, in addition to a number of buildings that entrance on Methuen and Union Streets, or the connecting aspect streets. The 2009 enlargement of the district, included a single building, the Morehouse Bakery building at 5-9 Mill Street.
1 Canal and Great Stone Dam
2 Mill complexes
3 See also
Canal and Great Stone Dam
The great Stone Dam was constructed across the Merrimack River at a spot known as Bodwell’s Falls, where there is a 5 foot drop. The dam was constructed to lift the top of the drop to 30 ft (9.1 m). It’s made of granite blocks laid on a bed of hydraulic cement. At its base it is 35 feet (11 m) thick, shrinking to thirteen toes (four.0 m) at its prime. It has three sections: the central span is 900 ft (270 m), a south wing 324 toes (ninety nine m) directs movement to the South Canal, and a 405 ft (123 m) wing directs water into the North Canal. It has a gatehouse, from which 24 gates in its sluiceway were controlled earlier than the controls were electrified. Close by on the island are additionally the surviving gatekeeper’s house, an 1845 Greek Revival wood frame construction, and a c. 1860s barn.
The North Canal runs parallel to the Merrimack River, and is 5,330 ft (1,620 m) long. It ranges in width from 100 feet (30 m) at its higher end to 30 ft (9.1 m) stone island zip up jumper where its wasteway joins the Spicket River. The canal is trapezoidal in its cross-section, with partitions lined by granite, and a bottom fabricated from granite rubble that has been sealed with clay. It is able to delivering four,000 cubic feet of water per second; water power continues to be used in some of the mills lining its banks. The canal used to have operable locks for navigation; the upper ones were removed and the decrease ones had been crammed in.
The Pacific Mills complex is an extensive array of buildings within the western (upper) and central parts of the district. The oldest standing constructing, a storehouse, dates to 1860, and there are remnants of an earlier 1852 structure. One of the more impressive buildings is the Weave Shed built in 1890; it is a two story brick building 300 feet (91 m) long. Its foremost cotton complex includes five buildings on the north side of the canal. In the central part of the district the Pacific Mills embody buildings in which both cotton and worsted wool products have been manufactured.
The Atlantic Mill Firm buildings stand next to these of the Pacific Mills in the upper portion of the island. Only two notable buildings survive, the c. 1906 spinning mill, and a boarding house (one of two such buildings to survive in the district) that dates to 1847 and is the one surviving remnant of what was once a much more intensive housing district.
The central portion of the district includes mill buildings from numerous manufacturers, together with the Bay State Woolens Firm (whose c. 1847 brick boarding house is now the visitor middle of Lawrence Heritage State Park), the Washington Mills, and buildings of the American Woolen Company and the Pemberton Mill. Different notable buildings right here embrace the Essex Company Workplaces and Yard (individually listed on the Nationwide Register). The lower portion of the district is predominantly occupied by the mill complexes of the Everett Mills and the Kuhnhardt Woolen Mills.
National Register of Historic Locations listings in Lawrence, Massachusetts
National Register of Historic Locations listings in Essex County, Massachusetts
^ a b c National Park Service (2008-04-15). “National Register Data System”. National Register of Historic Locations. Nationwide Park Service.
^ a b c d e f g “NRHP nomination for North Canal Historic District (Boundary Increase)”. Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Retrieved 2014-01-05.