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Stoned, For All Eternity

An awesome deal has been written about and made a lot of in alternative archaeology books about how and why our technologically primitive ancestors were able to carve out, transport and erect large multi-ton stone blocks into megalithic monuments of effectively, monumental measurement. The implication is that since there is no doubting the existence of these structures, our ancestors must of in truth possessed an advanced technology or had assistance from those that did (i.e. – ‘historic astronauts’). That runs opposite to the standard mannequin of scholarly archaeology. But the questions remain.

Perhaps I’d better say what I imply by large multi-ton stone blocks. I mean stones that are no less than a number of tons in weight, as much as the biggest recognized carved (however nonetheless in-situ and unused) stone block weighing in at roughly 1250 tons. That is not the record however for there may be, apparently, a stele base in China that weighs in at 16,250 tons. I imply these are stones that are not trivial to toss around, even right this moment. And whereas not all main continents and nations have megalithic stone monuments, like North America (USA & Canada) or Australia (including New Zealand) that still leaves lots of locations, and well-known locations, that do.

How and why these megaliths have been constructed isn’t any trivial matter. For our ancestors to go to such lengths and expend such efforts, nicely these stone monuments were obviously very important to them, and it’s necessary to us to determine how and why they did it. Utilizing massive stone blocks as a substitute of wooden and even small stone blocks or bricks will need to have served a purpose despite the greater hardships concerned. So, why did our historical ancestors want giant stones; and the way did they handle them

As to the why, presumably, for starters, if you determine to use stone, then it’s necessary enough a cloth serving a function(s) that necessitates lasting for all sensible purposes an ‘eternity’. In case you build something to final, at the very least again then, you use stone, the larger the better. But for what objective did the ancients need such megalithic giants

Points Arising: Function
These historic societies or cultures spent an awful lot of resources to construct issues that were relatively peripheral to their primary wants. The Easter Islanders might survive without these Moai statues; historical Egypt would nonetheless have been a ‘superpower’ even with out those pyramids, the Giza Sphinx, large statues of some New Kingdom pharaohs (like Ramesses II – often called Ramesses the great), stele and obelisks. The Parthenon in Athens was just a shrine to one of the Greek deities (Athena), and comparable observations could possibly be prolonged to the hundreds of other monumental megalithic temples and monuments all over the world which had been primarily ceremonial in function.

It is difficult to figure out how Stonehenge contributed to the essential survival wants of the local inhabitants – you need not assemble something of that magnitude just to let you know what season it is! If it is advisable mark, say the Summer season Solstice, all you want have is a historically and permanently properly marked and simply recognized Level A, where you may observe some fastened structure like a rock on the Horizon, that is Point B, and when the Sun arises instantly over Point B, that’s the longest day of the year. There isn’t any want to interact in any form of backbreaking toil or development whatever.

If a society can afford to spend time and effort and money on secondary projects, say like in modern society various public art works compared to major initiatives like roads (transport), faculties (training) and hospitals (health care), then it’s a must to conclude that that society was well off on condition that they might divert primary resources from major projects to undertake projects of a secondary nature. Either that, or that which appears to us as relatively trivial or unimportant like Stonehenge or Carnac (Brittany, France) or those Easter Island statues or the Sphinx really held a major operate incomprehensible to us but which rivalled in importance housing and insuring satisfactory meals supplies and comparable issues very important to their day-to-day survival.

Points Arising: Logistics
There’s also the logistics problem. You want a big workforce that had to be fed and clothed and housed and cared for, particularly fed. There wasn’t precisely a close by supermarket the place limitless supplies could possibly be bought. Additional, whereas employed on these quarrying, transporting and development initiatives the workers couldn’t be gainfully employed elsewhere to offer fundamentals like hunting and gathering for food and even tending to domesticated livestock and agricultural crops. The employees couldn’t have been used for serving in the army, or another helpful and necessary task. All of this carving, transporting and development weren’t just busy work designed to keep the rabble off the streets and out of trouble, and slave labour wasn’t normally in vogue both, contrary to many popular Hollywood photographs. After all in the case of the Giza Sphinx, it was carved, but wasn’t transported, nor constructed per say. Nonetheless, the logistics in caving that massive stone statue from a rock outcrop would have been enormous, and the reason(s) for doing so of vast importance to the powers-that-be.

Issues Arising: Ways and Means: The How!
Although our focus and curiosity is commonly on the development part, as in how was that performed, that’s often just one-third of the laborious yards. Take these 2.Three million blocks that make up the nice Pyramid at Giza. Section One: every block had to be carved to measurement. You simply did not hack out rocks at random and put them in place. That carving alone is tough yakka and helped sustain a state of full employment. Laborious yakka Part Two was transporting these carved blocks from the various quarries – some local, some not – to motion metropolis, the Giza Plateau. More full employment. The how in Section One and Two isn’t often all that mysterious – just bloody onerous backbreaking work. Anyway, again to the development – Phase Three.

To me the key mystery just isn’t a lot the way you get one thing from the horizontal to the vertical, like an obelisk, (that was demonstrated on the NOVA Tv series “Secrets of Misplaced Empires”), however the way you get a large multi-ton stone block raised straight up, say 20 to 30 to forty or extra feet to act as a lintel, like those at Stonehenge or on all these Greco-Roman and Egyptian temples, like say the Parthenon. One can at all times conceive of building sand or dirt ramps to haul large lintels upwards into place, hence eradicating the sand or dirt after-the-reality, however in the event you think about it, such infrastructure is a far more labour intensive and an all-spherical main challenge in its personal right. For example, constructing a sand ramp to haul these multi-ton stone blocks for the Giza pyramids would require a higher volume of material to be put into place (and of course later removed) than that of the amount of material required to build the pyramid in query in the primary place. After all if the undertaking is that vital, and if there’s simply no other manner – properly there’s all the time those hard choices.

To illustrate for instance of simply how unhealthy our information of our distant ancient ancestors really is, here is a trilogy of extracts from classical scholar Nigel Rodgers in his text “The Historical Greek World: Folks and Places” (2010):

“[T]he Greeks relied on their intellectual powers and their remarkably skilled craftsmanship to erect their buildings. Few particulars survive of their actual constructing strategies, however.”

“Cranes had been nearly actually used to assist raise the masonry up to the temples throughout construction, although no traces of such machinery have been found.”

“How the Athenians assembled these temples, and indeed housed and fed the large, extremely skilled workforce required to build them, so effectively is unknown.”

So, now let’s take a look at alternate options as provided in some alt-archaeological texts.
One concept sometimes seen in alt-archaeological tomes is that these large blocks did not start out as large blocks, just like a brick does not begin out as a brick, however slightly they have been poured into place, in a mould, like concrete or cement. Sorry, but modern petrologists’ could easily detect such. Typically in reality the quarry from where the stone originated might be exactly recognized, though that always raises the query then of transport, for the reason that distances twixt quarry site and development site could be hundreds of miles. That is an issue that applies to Stonehenge in addition to among the stonework for the Giza pyramids.

If you actually wish to go far-out, star-scout, let’s strive antigravity! Anti-gravity is barely available in one type, darkish energy. Darkish energy is that mysterious antigravity power that’s inflicting the expanding Universe to carry on expanding at ever sooner and sooner charges, in defiance of gravity which ought to sluggish the growth rate down. Alas, dark vitality, which while dominant over the scale of the whole Universe, is trivial locally relative to Earth’s intense gravity field.

Alt-archaeology texts are full of references to sound vitality that levitates (negates gravity) and thus massive blocks of stone will be floated round and put into place even with simply the oomph of an infant, simply by making the suitable sound at the suitable degree.. Sound of course can be focused. Everyone knows and appreciate the science of acoustics in theatres. Sound can shatter objects, effectively not less than comparatively fragile objects like wine glasses when subjected to the professional projections of the skilled human voice (or equivalent). Nonetheless, should you crunch the numbers, the energy required to negate gravity is manner outside the realm of which sound power can muster. Contemplating the cacophony of sounds the human race produces each day, you’d suppose that all of the relevant parts would come together somewhere, someday and ‘simply so’ as to provide levitation in one thing, levitation noticed and photographed for the file. Alas, not so.

Jigsaw Puzzles
In some constructions, it is not only a matter of manipulating massive but irregular stone blocks however fitting them together like a jigsaw puzzle, results which might be immediately apparent at sites around the world, like those from the Incan Empire. Precision carving in stone using only other stone or copper tools will not be easy by any stretch of the imagination. It isn’t easy; it’s extraordinarily exhausting and time consuming work. Double that when all your blocks aren’t an ordinary sq. block dimension and shape.

What Do Our Ancestors Say
Pity that although the ancients left all manner of photographs behind of their every day lives and tradition, I find it wonderful that regardless of all of those multi-thousands of photos from historical Greece, Rome, Egypt, the Americas, and so forth. not one exhibits an precise half-completed or partly constructed monument, like a pyramid, or a temple just like the Parthenon that’s beneath construction, or whatever. That’s extremely anomalous IMHO, though there are photographs of historic Egyptians transporting massive stone blocks.

Nonetheless, even a few of those ancient cultures had been puzzled as to how their even more ancient ancestors achieved these megalithic ‘missions impossible’.

There’s one thing very odd when the pure descendents of ‘primitive’ natives resort stone island half zip sweatshirt to tales akin to sci-fi or science-fantasy to account for a way their ancestors constructed, transported and erected large stone monoliths.

Easter Islanders say that their Moai statues walked by themselves from quarry to their remaining resting (actually standing) place. Who am I to argue with first hand or on-the-spot observations, except Thor Heyerdahl’s “Aku-Aku” crew achieved the same with less elegant however with pure grunt energy. Strolling stone statues are only a bit too far into the “Twilight Zone” for comfort. Truly for some reason Easter Islanders sooner or later downed their stone instruments and abandoned their statue constructions for reasons not totally clear apart from priorities altered. The abandoned unfinished statues can still be seen at the moment, lying in place, now long uncared for.

Additionally within the Pacific area, Nan Modal is an ancient city of about zero.75 square kilometres off the coast of the island of Pohnpei in what’s right this moment termed Micronesia. Town is comprised of artificial islands criss-crossed by canals, and thus usually referred to because the Venice of the Pacific. These ‘islands’ nevertheless are constructed up of huge megalithic stone partitions up to 25 feet excessive. How so Nicely the stones had been carried on site on the backs of dragons apparently. To be sincere, that makes as much sense as anything.

I noted above that allegedly sound could levitate large stone blocks. That principle or remark is found in both South America and ancient Egypt – massive stones are somehow lifted and transported by sound. I nonetheless suppose that’s extremely suspect and I believe scientists would need an actual trendy-day demonstration. I do know I would.

Tentative Conclusions
As I famous above, it is not the caving or the transport that is the real problem, nor going from the horizontal to the vertical that’s an actual downside, slightly the issue is lifting huge stones straight up that I especially puzzle over.

The puzzlement pertains to our own use of stones in building projects. We may I suppose, if we wanted to, construct our buildings out of mega-ton blocks of stone. But we don’t. Your house, if it accommodates constructing stones in any respect, are stones which can be probably akin to weights of simply a number of pounds, perhaps dozens of pounds; hardly tons.

So do we’ve a significant thriller here Properly yes, especially when in comparison with fashionable society as noted Stone immediately above. In our modern high-tech age, after we do use stone as a development materials, it is in manageable bits and items. We do not build our houses or workplace buildings or ballparks or monuments out of multi-ton to multi-hundred ton stone blocks as the ancients did. However when duty known as, like when Abu Simbel had to be relocated to a higher elevation when the Aswan Excessive Dam was constructed giving rise to Lake Nasser and the flooding of the historic site, even using modern expertise it was nonetheless a significant and massive effort.

A Doable Solution
Maybe we are able to kill two anomalous birds with one hypothetical stone.

Common One: As we observe, from the Americas (Mesoamerica and South America no less than); all through Europe and the Close to and Center East, Egypt and different elements of Africa, even unto Asia and the Pacific area, there are historic megalithic constructions utilizing stone blocks in the multi mega-ton vary. How did the ancients carve, transport, raise and place such large stone blocks

Common Two: Additionally world wide, there’s a universal theme of giants, from the Cyclopes in Greco-Roman cultures, to Biblical giants to – nicely you name the culture and I’ll assure they could have giants as a core factor in their mythologies. For samplers, this is just a partial list of giants. Well there’s Angrboda (Norse), Argos (Greek), Balor (Irish), Biloko (Zaire), Bungisngis (Philippines), the Cyclopes (Greek), Geryon (Greek), the Gigantes (Greek), Goliath (Biblical), Grendel (Anglo-Saxon), the Hecatonchires (Greek), Hrungnir (Norse), Humbaba (Mesopotamia), the Nephilim (Biblical), Skrymir (Norse), Suttung (Norse), Talos (Greek), the Titans (Greek), and Ymir (Norse). Additional, you’ve all manner of large trolls and ogres (Scandinavian), numerous big apemen just like the Yeti and Bigfoot/Sasquatch and quite a few others, as properly as the Giants of Cornwall (led by Gogmagog).

Effectively, what’s ‘mission: unimaginable’ for a young child, is feasible for an adult; what’s ‘mission: impossible’ for grownup people is perhaps possible for a large(s). A large twice as massive as a typical human can have eight occasions the muscle power, since muscles are 3-D, doubling in size, width and height; and thusly 2 x 2 x 2 = 8.

What Do Our Ancestors Say Revisited
Historical Greeks often attributed various massive stone constructions to the Cyclopes, for instance. Such huge structures are termed the Cyclopean partitions because the Cyclopes and solely the Cyclopes could have constructed these constructions. Perseus had them responsible for constructing the partitions of Mycenae, including the Lion Gate; Proitos attributed them constructing the walls of Tiryns. The medieval Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus cited the Roman ruins as proof that giants must once have walked the Earth. And who constructed the large’s Causeway on the Northern Irish Coast

Is that this too far out I am open to other suggestions, however at the least it doesn’t require excessive-tech alien assistance, until in fact these worldwide mythological giants, like the Cyclopes, have been aliens!

Appendix: A few notable megalithic monuments.
1) Some unfinished in-situ megaliths.

*Baalbek (Lebanon) has two unfinished stones weighing in at a thousand to 1250 tons apiece.
*There’s an unfinished Egyptian obelisk at Assuan that’s all up comes to roughly 1100 tons.

2) Some finished and transported megaliths.

*Stonehenge: some stones are as much as 40 tons.
*The Avebury stone circle, England, has as its largest stone one over forty tons.

*The famous fortress of Mycenae, Greece has stones near one hundred tons in weight.
*The Parthenon in Athens, Greece has some of its largest stones weighing in at 10 tons.

Pacific Area
*Those Easter Island (Rapa Nui to the locals) Moai can weigh up to 70, even one up to 86 tons.

Historical Egypt
*The Colossi of Memnon are two Egyptian statues of Pharaoh Amenhotep III coming in at seven-hundred tons each.

*Ramesses II (Ramesses the good) was not shy about erecting statues to honour himself. One in every of his numerous dozens of monumental statues commissioned to image self (at Luxor) – 100 tons value of stone. However that is featherweight class.

*Ramesses II was solely simply getting warmed up. There’s a statue at Thebes, Egypt, part of the Ramessum, the mortuary temple of the pharaoh in question, of one thousand tons. Now that’s heavyweight standing.

*Egyptian obelisks weren’t minuscule. There’s one at 227 tons (Luxor); one at 328 tons (Karnak).
*Nice Pyramid at Giza, Egypt is well often known as overkill relating to constructing a tomb. Although the typical weight of every stone block is ‘only’ 2.5 tons, the biggest slabs comprising the burial chamber, are available at eighty tons.

*Aside from the great Pyramid, different Egyptian pyramids, actually most, if not all other, Egyptian pyramids have some monolithic blocks of over 20 tons, including monolithic roof slabs, plugs and burial vaults, some of which weigh in at over 100 tons.

South and Central America
*Those well known but mysterious Olmec heads in Mesoamerica aren’t trivial works when carved all the way down to some 50 tons all up.

*The Inca metropolis of Machu Picchu, Peru has massive stones part and parcel of its building weighing in from 20 to 50 tons apeice.

*There’s a really well-known Aztec calendar stone at Tenochtitlan, Mexico that weighs considerably greater than the wall calendar you hang up at house. Weight, 24 tons.

*Palenque, Mexico is a well-known Mayan site, particularly due to Erich Von Daniken. The largest stones on site weigh 12 to 15 tons.

Further urged readings
Childress, David Hatcher; Technology of the Gods: The Unbelievable Sciences of the Ancients; Adventures Limitless Press, Kempton, Illinois; 2000:

De Camp, L. Sprague; The Historical Engineers; Ballantine Books, New York; 1974:
De Camp, L. Sprague & De Camp; Catherine C; Citadels of Mystery; Fontana/Collins, London; 1972:

Hancock, Graham; Fingerprints of the Gods: A Quest for the beginning and the tip; Mandarin, London; 1996:

Hancock, Graham & Faiia, Santha; Heaven’s Mirror: Quest for the Misplaced Civilization; Penguin Books, London; 1999:

National Geographic Society; Mysteries of Mankind: Earth’s Unexplained Landmarks; Nationwide Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.; 1992:

National Geographic Society; Mysteries of the Historical World; Nationwide Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.; 1979:

Von Daniken, Erich; Chariots of the Gods ; Souvenir Press, London; 1969:
Von Daniken, Erich; Gods from Outer Space; Souvenir Press, London; 1970:

Additional viewings:
NOVA; Secrets of Lost Empires; PBS/WGBH, Boston; 2006:

NOVA; Secrets and techniques of Misplaced Empires II; PBS/WGBH, Boston; 2008:
Stone Island Nylon Down Vest Burlywood 2015There’s additionally been dozens of books/videos written/produced particularly in regards to the archaeological mysteries of Stonehenge, ancient Egyptian monuments together with the pyramids, Easter Island, the ruins of Mesoamerica and South America, etc. Consult your local library.

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